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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS056-E-5107 Date: Jun. 2018
Geographic Region: USA-HAWAII

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  Waikoloa, Hawaii

An astronaut aboard the International Space Station shot this photograph of historical lava flows on the island of Hawai'i. Several villages in the area are underlain by lavas erupted from radial vents on the northwestern side of Mauna Loa volcano.

An eruption in 1859 produced an 'a'ā lava flow that destroyed a village and entered the ocean. The eruption lasted for about a year and also produced pāhoehoe flows that entered the ocean near Ohiki Bay and Pueo Bay.

The island of Hawai'i is divided into nine hazard risk zones, each based on the proximity to volcanic summits and rift zones, frequency and area of lava coverage, and topography. Zone 1 represents the greatest hazard risk, but Waikoloa stands in a less hazardous zone 3 due to the greater distances from the summit and rift zones of Mauna Loa.

The region near Waikoloa is known for its thriving aquaculture, particularly at the Anchialine Ponds. Native to the state of Hawaii, these natural ponds form in inland lava depressions and connect to the groundwater table near the shore. They contain brackish water but no visible connection to the ocean. These pools range from small lava cracks to large fishing ponds and are home to multiple species of rare invertebrates, many of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

This area is also home to the Ala Mamalahoa (King's Trail), part of the 175-mile long Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail that runs along the coastline of Hawai'i. The Ala Mahamaloa predates western contact with the island (1778), but it was rebuilt and paved with stone in 1840. One of the main attractions is the collection of ancient petroglyphs, which show the closest thing to a written language that the ancient Hawaiians used.

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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 801k
Mission: ISS056  
Roll - Frame: E - 5107
Geographical Name: USA-HAWAII  
Center Lat x Lon: 19.9N x 155.9W
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
Camera: N8
Camera Tilt: 41   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 1600  
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: W   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number:  
Date: 20180604   YYYYMMDD
Time: 234149   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 19.8N  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 152.8W  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 282   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 218   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 68   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views:  
Water Views:  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views:  
Photo is not associated with any sequences

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