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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS024-E-10162 Date: Jul. 2010
Geographic Region: TURKEY

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  Gulf of Izmit, Turkey

One of the most industrialized areas of Turkey lies at the eastern edge of the Sea of Marmara, at the end of the Gulf of Izmit. The long, narrow waterway provides ship access to the cities of Izmit and Golcuk. This astronaut photograph highlights the metropolitan area of Izmit along the northern and eastern shores. Commercial and industrial centers--including petroleum refineries and automobile factories--are recognizable by large structures with white rooftops. The city of Izmit, then known as Nicomedia, was part of the Roman Empire and served as its easternmost capital before Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) assumed that role in 330 AD. Izmit is located approximately 83 kilometers (52 miles) to the east-southeast of Istanbul.

The smaller city of Golcuk on the southern shoreline of the Gulf is the location of a Turkish naval facility and another automobile factory. Both urban areas are built primarily on flat lowlands adjacent to the Gulf, with green vegetation marking highland areas to the north of Izmit and south of Golcuk. Both the Izmit and Golcuk areas were severely damaged by a magnitude-7.4 earthquake on August 17, 1999, that resulted in over 17,000 fatalities. The earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian strike-slip fault that extends roughly east-west beneath the Gulf of Izmit.
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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 272k
Mission: ISS024  
Roll - Frame: E - 10162
Geographical Name: TURKEY  
Center Lat x Lon: 40.8N x 29.9E
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
Camera: N2
Camera Tilt: 32   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 180  
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: SE   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number: 3043  
Date: 20100731   YYYYMMDD
Time: 104722   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 41.9N  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 28.3E  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 200   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 187   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 65   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views: FAULT  
Water Views: GULF, SEA  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views:  
Photo is not associated with any sequences

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