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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS014-E-15732 Date: Mar. 2007
Geographic Region: BOTSWANA
Feature: SALT WORKS, SUA PAN

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  ISS014-E-15732 (1 March 2007) --- Salt ponds of Botswana are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 14 crewmember on the International Space Station. This recent, detailed view shows the salt ponds of one of Africa's major producers of soda ash (sodium carbonate) and salt. Soda ash is used for glass making, in metallurgy, in the detergent industry, and in chemical manufacture. The image shows a small part of the great salt flats of central Botswana known as the Makgadikgadi Salt Pans. The soda ash and salt are both mainly exported (since 1989) to most countries in southern and central Africa. Brines from just beneath the pan floor are evaporated to produce the soda ash and salt -- a process for which the semiarid climate of Botswana is ideal. Red salt-loving algae in the ponds indicate that the salinity of the evaporating brines is medium to high. The salt pans of Botswana--a prominent visual photo target of interest for astronauts aboard the station--lie at the low point of a vast shallow continental basin. Rivers draining from as far away as central Angola - more than 1,000 kilometers away - supply water to the pans. According to scientists, during several wet climatic phases in the recent geological past the pans were permanently filled with water, for thousands of years, only to dry out when climates fluctuated to drier conditions. During dry phases water only reaches the pans underground. These are the brines that support the ash and salt industry. During wet phases when open water exists, beach ridges are constructed by wave action. One of these crosses the lower part of the view.




Salt Ponds, Botswana:
This detailed astronaut photograph shows the salt ponds of one of Africa's major producers of soda ash (sodium carbonate) and salt. Soda ash is used for making glass, in metallurgy, in the detergent industry, and in chemical manufacture. The image shows a small part of the great salt flats of central Botswana known as the Makgadikgadi Salt Pans. The soda ash and salt are mainly exported (since 1989) to countries in southern and central Africa. Salt water from just beneath the pan floor is evaporated to produce the soda ash and salt--a process for which the semiarid climate of Botswana is ideal. Red, salt-loving algae in the ponds indicate that the salinity of the evaporating water is medium to high.

The salt pans of Botswana--an easily recognizable visual feature for astronauts aboard the ISS--lie at the low point of a vast, shallow continental basin. Rivers draining from as far away as central Angola, more than 1000 kilometers (621 miles) away, supply water to the pans. During several wet climatic phases in the recent geological past, the pans were filled with water for thousands of years, only to dry out when climates fluctuated to drier conditions. During dry phases, water only reaches the pans underground. This underground, salty water supports the ash and salt industry. During wet phases, when open water exists, waves build up beach ridges. One of these ridges crosses the lower part of the view.

Additional astronaut imagery shows another prominent set of salt ponds, near the Dead Sea.
 
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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 193k
Mission: ISS014  
Roll - Frame: E - 15732
Geographical Name: BOTSWANA  
Features: SALT WORKS, SUA PAN  
Center Lat x Lon: 20.5S x 26.1E
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
 
Camera: E4
 
Camera Tilt: 41   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 800  
 
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: SW   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number: 3372  
 
Date: 20070301   YYYYMMDD
Time: 064047   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 18.4S  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 27.6E  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 87   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 179   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 35   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views: BASIN  
Water Views: SEA, WAVE  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views:  
Photo is not associated with any sequences


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