Ten years ago, glaciers covered most of the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken in November 1990 by the Space Shuttle mission STS-38 crew.

By 2001, the glaciers had receded alarmingly, as shown by another photograph of Kilimanjaro taken by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-97 on December 2, 2000

Mountain glaciers are sensitive indicators of climate change, and those at tropical latitudes are particularly responsive. Mid-latitude and tropical glaciers have significantly decreased in area and volume over the past century. At the February 2001 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), researchers reported dramatic changes in the volume of ice capping the Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro. An estimated 82 percent of the icecap that crowned the mountain when it was first thoroughly surveyed in 1912 is now gone, and the ice is thinning as well -- by as much as a meter in one area. According to some projections, if recession continues at the present rate, the majority of the glaciers on Kilimanjaro could vanish in the next 15 years.

Aerial photograph copyright Alan Root, published in: Hastenrath, S., 1984, The Glaciers of Equatorial East Africa: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 353 p.

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